Resources – Freedom of Expression

Freedom of Speech

The Fritt Ord Foundation have partnerships with a number of Norwegian and international organisations working on freedom of speech in some capacity. A number of these are listed below, as well as other notable organisations and institutions within the field. 

Index on Censorship
Established in 1972 and is headquartered in London, Index on Censorship is an international organisation that promotes and defends the right to freedom of expression. The organisation publishes a journal that bears the same name. The journal includes articles, feature articles, short stories and poetry by journalists and writers from countries in which freedom of expression is threatened.
Article 19
Article 19 is an international freedom of expression organisation founded in 1987 and headquartered in London. The organisation is named after Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which focuses on freedom of expression. The group monitors threats to freedom of expression the world over and strives to introduce standards and legislation to protect journalists and writers.
IFEX, formerly known as the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, is a network consisting of 80 independent organisations, all of which work with issues involving freedom of expression. Established in 1992, the network is headquartered in Toronto, Canada. Its weekly newsletter is highly recommended. 
Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders is a French freedom of expression organisation headquartered in Paris. Established in 1985, the organisation has two target areas: freedom of information (focusing in particular on a free and uncensored Internet) and support for journalists who are persecuted and at risk. The organisation publishes an annual report entitled World Press Freedom Index.
Committee to Protect Journalists
The Committee to Protect Journalists was founded in 1981 by US journalists and its head office is in New York. The organisation strives to defend freedom of the press and the rights of journalists. It documents abuse and murders of journalists the world over.
Free Speech Debate
Free Speech Debate is an Internet-based debate platform under the administrative auspices of Oxford University. All content on the web site is translated into 13 languages in an attempt on strengthen dialogue across national frontiers and cultures. The articles are written by students from all corners of the world and they often address controversial topics such as blasphemy, Internet censorship, hate talk and cultural differences.
Freedom House
Freedom House is an organisation that works with democracy building, human rights and civilian and political rights. In addition to the more well-known Freedom of the World/Freedom House Index (published annually since 1972), the organisation also publishes the reports Freedom of the Press (since 1980) and Freedom on the Net (since 2009). 
Free Word Centre
The House of Literature Free Word Centre was opened in 2009 and is located in central London.  Besides its own programmes and projects, the Free Word Centre accommodates six cooperating organisations that promote freedom of expression and literary debate – including Article 19 and English PEN – and the building is used by a number of organisations for events, seminars and meetings.
American Civil Liberties Union
The American Civil Liberties Union was founded in 1920 and is headquartered in New York. The organisation works to promote the civil rights of all US citizens. Defending freedom of expression and the right to privacy have always been important target areas. Lawsuits filed by the ACLU have helped to develop and codify these rights at the international level as well as in the US legal system.
Norwegian PEN
Norwegian PEN is the Norwegian centre for PEN International, the world's largest writers and freedom of expression organisation. The Norwegian centre was founded in 1922. The International Network of Cities of Refuge for Persecuted Writers, Writers and Human Rights Activists, Writers in Prison Day and the Ossietzky Prize are among Norwegian PEN's most widely known initiatives.
The UNESCO Commission
The Norwegian UNESCO Commission consists of 12 members appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research and it serves as a bridge between the Norwegian authorities and civil society. The Commission has four target areas: education, science, culture, and information and communication.  Freedom of expression and freedom of the press play a key part in UNESCO's information and communication programme, and there is a separate subsidy scheme for projects that qualify under this point.
The Status of Freedom of Expression in Norway
The project "The Status of Freedom of Expression in Norway – the Fritt Ord Foundation's Monitoring Project", is being managed by the Institute for Social Research on commission for the Fritt Ord Foundation. The working group's mandate is to make a comprehensive review of the conditions for freedom of expression in Norway. This has not been done since the Freedom of Expression Commission filed its report in 1999. Both the main report and a number of less comprehensive sub-reports are available on the project's web site. The programme will run until 2017. 
The Association of Norwegian Editors
The Association of Norwegian Editors is a special interest organisation for editors working in Norwegian media enterprises. Established in 1950, the organisation has about 750 members. Its purpose is "to safeguard freedom of expression and freedom of the press as cornerstones of the constitutional state and democracy".
The Norwegian Press Association
The Norwegian Press Association is an amalgamation of Norwegian media organisations and enterprises. It was established in 1910. The association strives to promote the code of ethics, professional ethics and the integrity of Norwegian media, and to strengthen and defend freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of information. The Norwegian Press Association updates the press guidelines associated with the Code of Ethics for the Norwegian Press, and enforces them through the Press Complaints Commission.
The Norwegian Union of Journalists
The Norwegian Union of Journalists is an independent trade association that organises Norwegian journalists and represents the members in negotiations with the employers' organisations. The organisation is also engaged in media policy, partly as an independent player and commentator, and partly through the media organisations' joint body the Norwegian Press Association. Although the organisation was officially established in 1946, several of the organisation's local branches were established even earlier.
The Norwegian Media Businesses' Association
The Norwegian Media Businesses' Association strives to strengthen and defend freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of information, and to ensure good, stable conditions for promoting a wide range of financially sound media.  They have some 300 members, including newspaper corporations, printing companies, distribution companies, local television companies, weekly publications, multimedia companies, press agencies and radio stations.
Hate Speech International
Hate Speech International is an independent network of journalists employing cooperative models of cross-border research into extremism, hate speech and hate crime. The network was established by Øyvind Strømmen and Kjetil Stormark in 2013, with support from the Fritt Ord Foundation and the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.